Sessions & Tracks
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells found in multicellular organisms which divide through mitosis and differentiate into specialized cells. The two classical properties of stem cells which allow them to differentiate into almost any kind of body cell, are self- renewal, and potency. Due to their potential role in alternative therapies, stem cells are a topic of extensive research medical science.
- Biology of human embryonic stem cells.
- Genomics and Proteomics in Stem Cell Biology
- Cell signaling in stem cell differentiation.
- In-vitro culturing of stem cells.
- Applications of somatic stem cells.
Regeneration is a universal phenomenon in nature by which lost cells, tissues or body parts are replaced or restored in an organism as a general process of growth. During this process, adult stem cells or progenitor cells proliferate and differentiate to compensate the loss. The ability to regenerate depends upon the potency of any cell, categorized under totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, omnipotent and uni-potent.
- Histopathology of regenerative tissues.
- Hematopoietic stem cells for blood disorders.
- Mesenchymal stem cells for muscular disorders.
- Directed differentiation of somatic stem cells.
- Neural stem cells for neurodegenerative disorders.
Tissue engineering is a multi-disciplinary science involving the principles of cell biology, engineering and material sciences to replace or restore biological tissues which perform a specific function with a better framework. It is an act of combining the cells of construct, scaffold and growth factors into a functional tissue. The feasibility of bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, cardiac valves, auricular cartilage reconstruction, etc. explains the enormous potential of this relatively new field in biomedical sciences.
- Whole organ engineering.
- Extracellular matrix analog.
- Auricular cartilage reconstruction.
- Biomaterials and biopolymers for tissue engineering.
- Hydrogels for tissue engineering.
- Dermal tissue engineering.
- 3D printing in tissue engineering.
- Stem cell engineering.
Not all tissues in the body are devised to regenerate after damage. Tissue regeneration emphasizes on the science of regenerating functional body parts for medical treatments aimed at restoring normal body functions after disease, trauma and congenital issues. It gives rise to a translational field of regenerative medicine, came into existence two decades ago, and, harnesses the principles of molecular biology and tissue engineering. Use of stem cells is an integral part of regenerative medicine which emphasizes the possibility of culturing tissues and organs in-vitro and their implantation into the subject.
- Antibiotic-based tissue regeneration scaffolds.
- Prevention of intervertebral discs degeneration.
- Ligament regeneration with biomechanics.
- Osteoarthritis and knee joint replacement.
- Artificial pacemakers.
Stem cell research laid a foundation of basic scientific perception about the development of the whole organism from a unicellular entity or single cell itself. These cells are collected from few days old embryo, amniotic fluid or many other tissues, like, bone marrow and cultured in the laboratory under biological conditions. Stem cell research is an aid of utmost important to serve as a model for genetic disorders, study DNA repair mechanisms or to design replacement therapies for practically immedicable chronic conditions.
- Bone marrow transplantation and immune therapy.
- Clinical research in stem cell therapy.
- Approaches in clinical medicine.
- Biophysical and analytical techniques in stem cell research.
- Disease modeling and drug discovery.
- Immune tolerance of grafts.
- Induction of cancer by stem cells.
Stem cell therapy is aimed at treating numerous degenerative, hematopoietic and neuromuscular disorders, nearly 80 in number which cannot be treated with conventional methods. Bone marrow transplantation for blood disorders like, leukemia is the most celebrated application of stem cell therapy, other than skin tissue grafting and implantation. This new approach in medical biology is inclined at maximizing the quality of life by reducing the adversities of chronic disorders such as cancer and genetic diseases.
- Myelogenous or lymphocytic leukemia.
- SCID-X1 stem cell therapy.
- Type-I diabetes and artificial pancreas.
- Neurodegenerative disorders.
- Cardiovascular diseases.
- Autoimmune diseases.
- Spinal cord trauma
Nano-biotechnology in medical sciences renders some highly convincible outcomes in which few are only envisioned, while others are at different phases of clinical trials or already in practice. Nano-biotechnology in regenerative medicine includes utilization of nano-particles which are being designed nowadays and envisioned research that involves usage of nano-robots to imply changes at cellular and molecular level. Recently, it is being used for drug-delivery, thermal- and laser therapy for cancer treatment. Particles are designed in such a way that they are easily being recognized by surface receptors of target cells to ensure direct treatment and least possible damage to unaffected cells. This technology is also exploited for detection of diseases in initial phases for devising an effective therapy.
- Pharmaceutical nanotechnology.
- Nanoparticle-based anti-bacterial scaffolds.
- Nanoparticle-based drug-delivery systems.
- Nanotheranostic systems and their applications.
- Nano-robots in therapy.
- Nanoparticle imaging for disease diagnosis.
- Biodegradable nano-fiber scaffolds.
Bio-informatics deals with the development of algorithms and databases to manage, predict and analyze biological data. In-silico analysis of small molecules as a potential drug delivery target is a preliminary step in drug designing to ensure maximum efficacy. Self- learning algorithms, like, artificial neural network, are an important tool for vaccine designing. Computational biology along with bio-informatics is a vast domain incorporating consolidated facts from computer science engineering, animation, ecology, genomics, immunology, neuroscience, biochemistry and biophysics which can be used as pre-knowledge tools for designing stem cell therapies.
- Designing of tissue scaffolds.
- Innovative technologies for modeling and analysis.
- Molecular docking for drug delivery.
- Computational biology in stem cell research.
Certain immortal cells within the tumor are capable of proliferating into all other types of cancer cells. These cells, known as cancer stem cells, are the primary targets of cancer biologist and oncologist for treatment of various tumors, even though they are fairly resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Approaches have been made to exploit the property of these cells to develop immortal cell lines for the production of drugs and cytokines relevant to medical use, but, a lot more understanding is required before bringing the results in practice.
- Prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers of cancer stem cells
- Signaling in tumorigenic cells
- Pharmaceutical applications of cancer stem cells
- Drug resistance in cancer stem cells.
- Cancer antigens as immunotherapy targets.
- Stem cells as a tool to battle cancer.
The discovery of Induced pluripotent stem cells emphasizes on reprogramming of any adult differentiated cells into stem cells by genetic modification under precisely controlled laboratory conditions. Reprogramming of cells is supposed to presage revolution in both, medical and biological research and allows modeling and analysis of human diseases and cell cytotoxicity by drugs. The technique is still in its growing phase and requires a great deal of extensive research and approval from authorities for further trials.
- Induced pluripotent stem cells.
- Disease modeling using iPS cells.
- Regeneration of RBCs.
- Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.
- Muscular dystrophy.
- Cell signal transduction in iPS cells.
Umbilical cord blood is highly enriched with pluripotent stem cells which are considered lifesaving in later stages of life as they can treat a host of disorders. Cord blood stem cells are used to target blood disorders, immune deficiencies, and rare metabolic disorders, including leukemia, Krabbe disease, aplastic anemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma, sickle-cell anemia and thalassemia, with least chances of rejection by the body. Cord blood preservation of newborn babies, also termed as, stem cell banking, in public or family banks, is gaining a lot of awareness among people as it holds promise for future well-being.
- Global market for cord blood preservation
- Clinical application of stem cell banking
- Legal policies and regulations
- Ethical issues in cord blood banking
The development of targeted genome editing technique using custom-engineered sequence-specific nucleases (including CRISPR/Cas9) allowed genetic changes with greater precision. This technique has a widespread application in the reprogramming of stem cells to study disease outcomes. The rapid evolution of these two techniques over years and their relationship with one another has paved a way for understanding cellular interactions and regulation of transcription at a molecular level with appreciable efficiency and flexibility.
- CRISPR/Cas9 in genome editing
- Genome editing for designer babies
- DNA repair in stem cells
- Generation of animal models by genome editing
- Targeting genetic diseases by genome editing in stem cells
The extent of research in the field of stem cells has grown manifolds over the past few decades. Use of adult stem cells in alternate disease therapies is the new promising approach with striking progress in regenerative medicine. With the emergence of new stem cell pharmaceutical products for disease control, the therapeutic potential of stem cells and tissue regeneration seems boundless.
- Vision improvement and tooth regeneration.
- Gene therapy for blood transfusion.
- Spinal fusion and ossification.
- Technology in rejuvenation.
- Development of recombinant signaling molecules.
- Advances in biochips and tissue chips.
Stem cells and their applications in tissue regeneration comes with a few interesting controversies regarding the bioethical issues involved in stem cell research. The collection of somatic stem cells from the human fetuses and umbilical cords is the most extreme controversy so far. Other issues involve the potential of stem cells to induce a tumor in the body and use of embryos which are only few days old. Human embryo cloning was suggested as an alternative to this situation which was highly criticized by the ethical groups. Currently, lack of stem-cell markers and in-vitro systems for manipulation also hinders the research and makes it a daunting task.
- Limitations and challenges in tissue engineering.
- Clinical trials in alternative therapy.
- Research ethics in stem cells and regenerative medicine.
- Bioethical issues in embryonic stem cells.
- Global strategy and legal framework.
Classical methods of gene therapy include transfection. It became inefficient and limited mainly due to delivery of gene into actively proliferating cells in-vitro. Gene therapy utilizes the delivery of DNA into cells by means of vectors such as biological nanoparticles or viral vectors and non-viral methods. The Several kinds of viruses vectors used in gene therapy are retrovirus, adenovirus, adenovirus and herpes simplex virus. While other recombinant viral vector systems have been developed, retroviral vectors remain the most popular vector system for gene therapy protocols and widest application due to their historical significance as the first vectors developed for efficient gene therapy application and the infancy of the field of gene therapy.
- Vectors for Gene Therapy
- Retroviral and Other Viral Vector
- Non -Viral Vectors in Gene Therapy
- Calcium Phosphate Transfection
- Targeted Vector Systems
- Transduction Targeting
- Fusion Protein Targeting
- Targeting Cell Surface Molecules
Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising treatment for numerous neurological disorders. One such application has been recognized in stroke, a debilitating health burden that affects hundreds of thousands of individuals worldwide. Many patients would greatly benefit from the development of novel treatments for stroke with wider therapeutic windows than the current limited treatment, tPA (tissue plasminogen activator). Cell therapy for neurologic disorders means the use of cells of neural or non-neural origin to replace, repair, or enhance the function of the damaged nervous system. Numerous technologies are involved in the development of cell therapies. These include the use of stem cells and genetic modification of cells. Several types of cells have been transplanted into the nervous system for the treatment of neurologic disorders.
- Parkinson's disease
- Huntington's disease
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
- Alzheimer's disease
- Multiple sclerosis
- Demyelinating diseases
- Cerebral ischemia
Cardiovascular diseases have become an increasing clinical issue globally. A new challenge in the treatment of the cardiovascular disease is cellular transplantation or cellular cardiomyoplasty. Acute ischaemic injury and chronic cardiomyopathies lead to permanent loss of cardiac tissue and ultimately heart failure. Current therapies wide aim to attenuate the pathological changes that occur when injury and to scale back risk factors for vas diseases. However, they do not improve the patient's quality of life or the prognosis more than moderate. Different types of stem cells have been used for stem cell therapy.
Getting cell therapy products onto the market as quickly as possible still remains a key driver in the improvement of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Any such advance in bioprocessing is of particular interest to the industry if it considerably shortens the development timeline or improves the end product. In the monoclonal antibody (MAb) area, platform procedures have allowed companies to regulate on particular mammalian cell lines, transfection approaches, process conditions and also downstream processing to shorten the development timeline.
- Bioprocessing techniques used in stem cell culture
- Micro fluids in cell therapy
- DNA vaccines
- Molecular manufacturing
- Current understanding & challenges in bioprocessing
Gene therapy is a logical way to treat rare genetic disorders and cure a single gene defect by introducing with a 'correct' gene. The first gene-therapy trials were conducted using patients with rare monogenetic disorders, but these are now outstripped by the clinical testing of gene therapeutics for more common conditions, for ex: cancer, AIDS, and heart disease. This is partially due to a failure to achieve long-term gene expression with early vector systems, a critical condition for correcting many inborn genetic defects.
- Developing new probes for tissue targeting
- Therapeutic bioengineering
- Cellular mechano-biology
- Tissue engineering for own stem cells
- Bioengineering for medical diagnostic & imaging
Importance and Scope
“Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine” is an important field since human development takes place through stem cells. The complete understanding of their unique properties and control mechanisms can give an insight into early human development. Metabolic or physiological diseases such as cancer are thought to result from the abnormal behavior of cells. This means that a clear understanding of where things go 'wrong' in stem cell division can give a clear picture about cancer and can aid in realizing the ways to prevent the dysfunctional changes in the body or to introduce effective ways to treat them with targeted drugs. Stem cell application in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering is an alternative therapy for various diseases and the on-going extensive research in this field is assumed to further steer the medical applications of stem cells in upcoming years.
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Stem cell applications have currently emerged as a rapidly diversifying field with the potential to address the global organ shortage issue and comprises of tissue regeneration and organ replacement. The global tissue engineering and regeneration market are expected to grow to nearly $56.9 billion in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 22.3%.
Global Regenerative medicines market is projected to reach $ 30,237 million by 2022. North America led the global market in 2015 and is expected to remain dominant during 2015-2022. Global stem cell therapy market is growing at a CAGR of 39.5% from 2015 to 2020, to reach $330 million by 2020.
The major factors boosting the market growth include technological advancements in tissue and organ regeneration, increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and trauma emergencies, a prominent potential of nanotechnology, and the emergence of stem cell technology. In addition, increasing incidence of degenerative diseases and the shortage of organs for transplantation are expected to boost the growth of the market. The prominent potential of regenerative medicine to replace, repair, and regenerate damaged tissues and organs has boosted the market growth. Moreover, utilization of nano-materials in wound care, drug delivery, and immunomodulation has opened growth avenues for the regenerative medicines market. However, stringent regulatory barriers and a high cost of the treatment are likely to hinder the market growth.
What are some of the Major Drivers for the Stem Cells Market?
The key driver for the global stem cells market is the increasing government support across the world. As widespread incorporation of stem cell therapy allows a nation to significantly improve the overall healthcare scenario, countries in North America and Western Europe have provided solid support to stem cell research. The acceptance of stem cell therapy in emerging regions is still lagging behind due to the lack of advanced medical infrastructure to adopt stem cell therapy, but the steady improvement of the healthcare sector in countries such as India and China is likely to be a major growth driver for the global stem cells market. The increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders is another major driver for the global demand for stem cells. Neural tissue can’t be regenerated or replaced as easily as structural tissues, and the ability of stem cells to develop into human cells provides the perfect avenue for treatment of neurodegenerative conditions.
Stem cell Market Segmentation and Industry Structure
Stem cells are widely used in drug discovery and medicine and in regenerative medicine. In 2016, approximately 90% of the revenue was generated from regenerative medicine owing to the large unmet medical needs, regenerative medicines used in the chronic disease treatment of Parkinson’s and Huntington’s. Stem cell research was segmented into Basic research and therapeutic research in which allogenic cell therapy succeeded 100% according to world global market for the stem cells.